Implications for Success
Theoretical Implications The Physical Activity for People with a Disability (PAD) model:
|Source: van der Ploeg, van der Beek, van der Woude, & van Mechelen (2004), Figure 3 page 645. Copywrite 2004 by Adis International. Reproduced with permission.|
External Variables: Personal factors such as age, socioeconomic factors, health conditions, lifestyle, coping styles, social background, education, and other characteristics.
Environmental Factors: External factors such as the individual's physical and social environment as well as the feelings or attitudes of others influencing the individual.
- Social Influence: How others feel about an active leisure lifestyle for the individual.
- Environmental Facilitators/Barriers: External factors such as accessibility, no one to engage in activities with, and lack of assistance. The presence or absence of these factors determines whether they are facilitators or barriers.
Personal Factors: Cognitive and behavioral factors, personal history, and characteristics that influence the individual.
- Health Condition(s): Diseases, disorders, traumas, injuries, and other such problems that, as a result, constitute disability.
- Attitude: How the individual feels about his or her ability and desire to have an active leisure lifestyle.
- Self-Efficacy: How confident the individual is that he or she can succeed in an activity despite barriers.
- Personal Facilitators/Barriers: Money, motivation, skills to engage in the activity, social skills. The presence or absence of these factors determines whether they are facilitators or barriers.
- Intention: Plan or commitment to participate in physical activity.
Body Functions and Structures: Body or body part level. Impairments in the structure and function (including physiological and psychological function) of body or body parts. For example, impairment in structures related to movement and impairment in movement-related functions.
Activities: Person/individual-level limitations. Limitations in performance or ability that influence whether an individual participates in a given activity.
Participation: Societal-level restrictions. Participation or societal participation restrictions can be a result of discrimination and stigmas.
This model infers that engaging in physical activity can be understood at each of the three levels of functioning (body functions and structures, activities, and participation) and is determined by the other above elements. The main determinant of behavior is the intention to engage in behavior, and without this intention, the behavior will not take place. However, the intention alone does not guarantee participation due to the environmental and personal components affecting whether that individual will act on his/her intention.
Project GAIN has taken into account all elements of the PAD model. The program provides an opportunity for all individuals to participate in golf regardless of skills or abilities. Adaptive equipment/assistive devices are provided to alleviate the activity limitations and to aid in the acquisition of skills for participation, which will foster confidence. The mentors, volunteers, and all involved are trained so that they can remove stigmas concerning individuals with disabilities and their ability to perform various tasks. In addition, Project GAIN strives to involve the larger community so that inclusion is a widespread value and practice. In doing so, GAIN has demonstrated that individuals with disabilities can participate successfully alongside their non-disabled peers. This has been accomplished through golf tournaments or outings where participants have been integral members of their winning teams.
Through participation in the program, those who did not have the attitude that would produce intention, will likely acquire this attitude as they will be having fun and seeing others, similar to themselves, engaging successfully. The lessons will not only build the skills needed for playing golf and for appropriate social interaction in golf, but through the lessons, the instructors and mentors will structure experiences in a way that will create self-efficacy for the participant. Lastly, Project GAIN begins removing barriers to participation before the program even starts and as the program progresses, continues to remove barriers in all domains affecting participants.