Section Two: Overview of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (Quality Physical Education)
The goals of a CSPAP are:
• To provide a variety of school-based physical activities to enable all students to participate in 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity each day.
• To provide coordination among the CSPAP components to maximize understanding, application, and practice of the knowledge and skills learned in physical education so that all students will be fully physically educated and well-equipped for a lifetime of physical activity.
Students can accumulate the recommended amount of physical activity through the provision of the multicomponent CSPAP. The following sections describe each component of a CSPAP in greater detail. CSPAP Page 12
The goals of the CSPAP acknowledges “all” students meet the recommended 60 minutes of physical activity. It is important to recognize that additional support, accommodations, training and coordination may be needed to achieve this goal for children and youth with disabilities.
Quality Physical Education
Physical education is an academic subject and serves as the foundation of the CSPAP, by providing the opportunity for students to learn knowledge and skills needed to establish and maintain physically active lifestyles throughout childhood and adolescence and into adulthood.
Quality physical education:
■ Meets the needs of all students.
■ Is an enjoyable experience for all students.
■ Keeps students active for most of physical education class time.
■ Teaches self-management.
■ Teaches skills to maximize movement proficiency.
■ Emphasizes knowledge and skills for a lifetime of physical activity.
■ Can increase student participation in physical activity, increase physical fitness, and enhance student knowledge and skills about why and how they should be physically active. CSPAP Page 12
Physical education is not optional for children and youth with disabilities. Current laws ensure the provision of physical education for students with disabilities.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 states that “no qualified individual with a disability in the United States shall be excluded from, denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under” any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requires public schools to make available to all eligible children with disability a free, appropriate public education in the “least restrictive environment” alongside their peers without disability as is appropriate to their individual needs.
An Individualized Education Plan (IEP) is a legally binding document that has been tailored specifically to a child’s educational needs, including his or her physical education needs. An IEP should state specific goals and objectives for physical education
As defined by SHAPE America, a quality physical education program includes the opportunity to learn, meaningful content, appropriate instruction, and student and program assessment. CSPAP Page 12
Components of quality physical education provide a pathway for inclusion of students with disabilities in physical education programs. The following specific components discussed in the table provide opportunity for inclusion.
|Physical Education Component||Inclusion Pathway|
|All students are required to take physical education.||
Utilize physical education goals in an Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for students with disabilities.
|Qualified physical education teacher provides developmentally appropriate program.||
Provide additional training for physical education teachers to include provision of services to students with disabilities.
|Adequate equipment and facilities.||
Ensure outdoor spaces, gyms and playgrounds are accessible to students with disabilities.
|Instruction in a variety of motor skills designed to enhance the physical, mental and social/emotional development of every child.||
Provide training, resources, or equipment necessary to adapt motor skill activities for students with disabilities.
|Fitness education and assessment to help children understand; improve and/or maintain physical well-being.||
Adapt instructional techniques for students with learning or other mental disabilities to ensure they understand and are participants in maintaining their physical well-being.
|Opportunities to improve emerging social and cooperative skills and gain a multi-cultural perspective.||
Utilize buddy system and peer mentoring.
|Promotion of regular amounts of appropriate physical activity now and throughout life.||
Ensure that teachers and other staff understand the benefits of lifelong physical activity for children and youth with disabilities and have an expectation that they will continue to be physically active.
|Students are physically active for at least 50% of instructional time.||
Adapt activities and class design to ensure students with disabilities participate and do not sit on sidelines.
|Out of school assignments that support learning and practice.||
Research community-based sports or adapted sports programs and encourage participation.
Formative and summative assessments of student progress.
Assessments should include physical testing of motor performance, as well as understanding of the disability, strengths and weaknesses, and personal goals.
Discover Inclusive Physical Education Guidebook
SHAPE America- Adapted Physical Education Resource Manual
GRAIDS- Guidelines Recommendations and Adaptations Including Disability